UCLA - Linguistics
Seminar on Presupposition
Ling 252 - Fall 2007
| Last Modification: November
Time and Place
Reminder: Due to Veterans’ Day, Thanksgiving,
and the fact that 3 classes that will missed (2 of which were replaced in
advance), the next class will be on Monday, November 26th.
George's Trivalent Theory
on Heim 1983
[See below for a link to Chierchia's 2002 paper on implicatures]
In the 1980's, the analysis of presupposition contributed
to a 'dynamic turn' in formal semantics: the concept of 'meaning as
truth conditions' was replaced with a more powerful notion, whereby the
meaning of a sentence was identified with its potential to modify the
beliefs of the speech act
participants. This seminar has two goals:
(i) We will introduce the motivations, formal tools and empirical
achievements of the dynamic analysis of presuppositions.
(ii) We will discuss critiques of the dynamic approach and
ongoing attempts to offer a systematic alternative to it.
(Time permitting, neighboring topics such as anaphora and implicatures
might be touched upon.)
(i) Do the readings and participate actively in class discussions.
(ii) Give one class presentation and/or do some exercises.
(iii) Write one term paper.
Main Readings (with links whenever possible)
Beaver, D. and Krahmer, E.: 2001, A Partial
Account of Presupposition Projection. Journal of Logic, Language and
Information 10, 2. Available here if
you login from UCLA.
Chemla, E.: 2007, An experimental study of presupposition
(and other types of inferences) triggered from the scope of quantifiers.
Manuscript, École Normale Supérieure, Paris.
Current version available here.
Chierchia, G.: 2004, Scalar Implicatures, Polarity Phenomeman,
and the Syntax/Pragmatics Interface. In A. Belletti (Ed.), Structures and
beyond, pp. 39–103. Oxford University. The 2002 manuscript is available
Geurts, B.: 1999, Presupposition and Pronouns. Elsevier.
Some chapters are available here:
Chapter one: Presupposition
Chapter two: The binding theory
Chapter four: Dynamic semantics
Chapter six: Modals
Heim, I.: 1983, On the Projection Problem for Presuppositions.
In D. Flickinger et al. (eds), Proceedings of the Second West
Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 114-125. Reprinted in
Davis, S. (ed): 1991, Pragmatics: A Reader, Oxford University
Press. [Hard copy of the article available from the organizers]
Heim, I.: 1990, Presupposition Projection. In R. van
der Sandt (ed.) "Presupposition, Lexical Meaning and Discourse Processes:
Workshop Reader," University of Nijmegen, 1990. Available here
Karttunen, L.: 1974, Presupposition and Linguistic
Context. Theoretical Linguistics 1: 181-194. Reprinted in Davis
(ed): 1991, Pragmatics: A Reader, Oxford University Press. Available
from Karttunen's homepage.
Peters, S.: 1979, A Truth-Conditional Formulation of Karttunen's
Account of Presupposition. Synthese 40,2: 301-316. Available
if you login from UCLA.
Schlenker, P.: to appear, Be Articulate! (A Pragmatic Theory of Presupposition
Projection). To appear as a target article in Theoretical Linguistics
in 2008. Current version available here.
Stalnaker, R.: 1974, Pragmatic Presuppositions. In Munitz,
M. and Unger, P. (eds.) Semantics and Philosophy. New York:
New York University Press. Reprinted in Davis, S. (ed): 1991, Pragmatics:
A Reader, Oxford University Press. [Hard copy of the article available
from the organizers]
Bibliography on Presupposition
Beaver, D.: 1997: Presupposition [ps].
In J. van Benthem and A. ter Meulen (eds.), The Handbook of Logic
and Language, Elsevier, pp. 939-1008.
Beaver, D. and Zeevat, H.: to appear, Accommodation.
In Ramchand, G. and C. Reiss (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces,
Oxford University Press.
The Transparency Theory
Schlenker, P.: 2007, Anti-Dynamics:
Presupposition Projection Without Dynamic Semantics.
Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16, 3: 325-256 (32
Unified Analysis of Presuppositions and Implicatures
Chemla, E.: 2007, Projecting Presuppositions with Scalar Implicatures, slides,
Sinn und Bedeutung 2007 (Helsinki). [slides]
-On scalar implicatures
When children are more logical than adults: experimental investigations
of scalar implicature, by Ira A. Noveck.
Cognition, Volume 78, Issue 2, February
2001, Pages 165-188
[Children appear not to compute
implicatures: experiments at the semantics–pragmatics interface
, by Anna Papafragou and Julien Musolino. Cognition
semantics and acquisition of number words: integrating linguistic
and developmental perspectives, by Julien Musolino. Cognition, Volume
93, Issue 1, August 2004, Pages 1-41
Volume 86, Issue 3 , January 2003, Pages 253-282
[5 year-olds have difficulty accessing scalar implicatures
for or; but they readily obtain
exactly readings of numerals]
[5 year-olds can be made to accept at least readings of numerals, but this
takes some work]
Percus, Orin, 'Antipresuppostions'.
Ms., U. of Nantes [nice presentation of 'maximize presupposition'
and some of the problems it raises]
Sauerland, Uli 'A Comprehensive Semantics for Agreement',
ms., Berlin [pdf]
(you may skip the technical parts on plurals) [application of 'maximize presupposition'
to the analysis of pronominal features]
Sauerland, Uli 'The Present Tense
is Vacuous', Snippets 6: 2002.
Noyer, Rolf. Distributed Morphology
Web Page [very reader-friendly presentation of a recent theory of a
morphological underspecification; numerous references].